SPECIFICATIONS AND GUIDELINES FOR UPHOLSTERED FURNITURE
DIMENSIONS & SPECIFICATIONS TO ACHIEVE MAXIMUM COMFORT
Although the final dimensions for any given item are often arrived at as a result of trying to achieve a specific look or the need for a piece to fit properly in a specific area, there are certain dimensions which should be followed in order to ensure a comfortable and ergonomically correct design. Overall height, width and depth can vary greatly in order to achieve a given style, however seat depth and back pitch should remain constant depending on the use, i.e. lounge or dining. Where loose back cushions or extra pillows are being used, their thickness should be considered when calculating seat cushion depth. Regardless of type of seating arm height should be 6”-9” above seat height whenever possible.
Highest standards used in seating industry; with all structural and artistic detailing as indicated on drawings, samples and/or pictures and exemplified by best industry craftsmanship.
All finishing materials to be of highest grade for the respective kinds. Standard Finish unless otherwise specified is catalyzed lacquer. The lacquer is resistant to water, alcohol, cosmetics and paint remover and is applied by skilled tradesman. All exposed wood will be sanded between coats, ensuring that finish is even and smoothly applied to produce to produce best possible results. All edges will be sanded to ensure smooth and softened appearance. Finish will be matched accurately to customers supplied samples.
- Machine stitch all seams; all stitching to be of a gauge which prohibits any open spaces between stitches; execute all stitching with a thread if suitable fiber, gauge and construction in accordance with upholstery fabric used.
- All piping or welting applied in a straight and neat fashion.
- Nail head and trim when specified – high quality and individually applied by hand.
- Ensuring all public area upholstery fabrics meet or exceed MVS 302 test for flame proofing even if this requirement exceeds local fire code regulations only if upholstery fabric is not C.O.M
- Materials to be new and best for the respective kinds.
- Compliance with manufacturer’s printed directions where a trace name product is specified; obtain directions from manufacturer.
- Marcucci Home Interiors assumes responsibility for final condition of all fabrics and any flaws therein.
WOOD FRAME & SPRING CONSTRUCTION
When specifying furniture, there are several points that should be made clear to the manufacturer regarding the materials to be used and the quality of construction that is expected. A hardwood frame should be standard but to be on the safe side it would be a good idea to make it a comment in the specs of all pieces being submitted for quoting. In Canada BC Maple with 6-7% moisture is the preferred choice for frame construction. Frames should be screwed, glued and double doweled for proper strength. BC Maple is also suitable for showwood as in legs, arms or other details where the wood is to be seen. If an alternative wood is to be used it should be taken into consideration that this will increase the cost and most likely the lead time.
SPRINGING AND COIL CONSTRUCTION
Seat springs are available in either coil or sinuous types and which to choose is determined by the intended use of the seat. Webbing should not be used in commercial applications but are suitable for residential. Coil springs provide greater comfort and are typically used for lounge chairs or sofas and are only used for the seats. In dining chairs and stools, sinuous springs are preferable due to the limited space in the seat. Sinuous springs are almost always used for the back of any piece of upholstered furniture. In a sofabed the bed mechanism replaces the springs for support, see section 4 for more information on bed mechanisms.
The foam used in upholstered furniture comes in a variety of densities, firmness and fire resistance. Fire codes for upholstered furniture in Canada & USA need to be CAL 117 to meet fire code. TBD 133 is the most stringernt fire code in North America. Cities such as Boston & NYC where historically tragic fires have occured require this type of application.
All foams are categorized by the two measurements of density measured in pounds per cubic foot and firmness measured by a process called indentation load deflection (ILD).
The density of foam is the weight of one cubic foot of the material. Although density does not determine the firmness they are tied together as softer foams are usually lighter. The density affects the cost and the life of the foam. The higher the density the more expensive the foam and the longer it will last. A density of 2.0-2.5 is the appropriate range for upholstered furniture used in commercial applications where there will be a high level of use.
Wood Frame & Spring Construction
ILD is determined by taking a sample of foam of a specific size (typically 50 cubic inches) and compressing it into a predetermined size. The amount of force in pounds to achieve this indentation is the ILD. A lower ILD means a softer foam. The chart below shows the types of foams used at Credible Upholstery and their typical use. Although the way foams are referenced vary from company to company the numbers used are standard. For example 14230, has an ILD of 14 and a density of 2.30lbs.
BED MECHANISM & MATTRESS SPECIFICATIONS
When a sofabed is being specified the dimensions of the desired mechanism will determine the internal clearance required to accommodate the selected mechanism. The chart below shows different sizes of mechanisms and the minimum internal width required to fit that size. Once the internal size has been determined the outer overall dimensions can be determined. When the sofa is being designed the internal width can be thought of as the distance between the inside of the arms. The depth required is typically 32” and the clearance required for the opening once the seat cushions are removed is a minimum of 23”. The front of the sofa between the seat cushions and the legs must be no less than 9.5”. Sofabed mattresses should be specd with 290 coils, 6” mattress with F2 ticking.
UPHOLSTERY TECHNIQUES & SPECIFICATIONS
When specifying fabric, specifically when requesting a quote that requires necessary yardages, it is important to note if there is a direction to the fabric, whether or not the fabric is railroaded or up the roll and which direction stripes or patterns are to be applied to the furniture. In the event that there is a pattern the pattern repeat must be included, as it will affect yardage allowance. Tight upholstery must always be indicated. There are several finishing options for upholstery in regards to stitching and welt (also referred to as piping). Welt is available in several sizes the most common being ½” and ¼” and are sometimes done in double welt.